Wednesday, 2 January 2019

Knickers in a rag tree: contemporary votive deposition at a prehistoric monument


Today we took a visit to the Rollright Stones in Warwickshire. With my archaeology head on I should probably have been more interested in the Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monumentality – or even the adjacent Anglo-Saxon cemetery. However, what caught my eye was the evidence for contemporary votive deposition practices. The use of prehistoric sites for modern New Age spiritual processes is not exactly an understudied phenomenon. . has long been associated with neo-Druidism and a range of other modern paganism practices; and rag trees can be found at many prehistoric monuments, such as Avebury. This is also true at the Rollright complex – consisting of an early Neolithic portal dolmen, a later Neolithic stone circle and a Bronze Age standing stone – a rag tree has grown up to the east of the stone circle, a wide range of small votive depositions had taken place on the stones themselves and a modern willow sculpture had also been co-opted as a kind of rag tree.

Two things in particular interested me. First, the ad hoc nature of the rag trees. The notion of tying a rag or strip of cloth to a tree deemed as having some spiritual significance is an old one, and one that has been revived by many followers of the constellation of New Age beliefs and practices that have grown up from the 1970s. What I found particularly intriguing was the range of items that had been used as rags. There were obviously a range of textile rags and ribbons- either torn from larger pieces of fabric or originally intended for wrapping presents or decorating clothes. More striking was the wide range of other items that had been tied to the branches of a tree and the willow sculpture. I noted a torn strip of J-Cloth, bits of bin bag and carrier bag, knotted receipts, a fragment of military uniform – most spectacularly there was even a pair of women’s knickers! This seems to suggest that whilst some people had come to the site with the deliberate intention of tying a rag to the tree, for many others it was an entirely an extemporised decision, using  materials  to hand – whatever could be scraped up out of a car footwell, a handbag or a coat pocket. The decision to tie a rag often seems to have been an improvised action rather than a formally planned one with advanced intentions.  I suspect that there are other issues relating to intentionality at play here – whilst those who plan ahead may have a more coherent sense of the symbolism and meaning (personal and cosmological) behind the act of tying a rag to the tree, those who act on the spur of the moment may have done so for other, perhaps less theorised reasons. There may well have been an element of mimesis and copying an intriguing practice rather than anything more structured.


A second thing I noticed was the distinction between the range of a objects placed on the stone circle and the items placed on the portal dolmen. On both there was wide range of organic and deposits, including flowers, sprigs of mistletoe and berries. However, the only inorganic objects, primarily coins and the occasional other item, such as a small knife, were only found around the dolmen – the key difference here is that whilst there is complete unfettered access to the stone circle, the dolmen is surrounded by an iron fence, which whilst allowing items to be tossed onto the stone, prevent their unauthorised removal (although a padlocked gate in the fence would allow authorised access to the deposits). I wonder whether coins and other objects were sometimes placed on the stones but were quickly removed- I can imagine small change in particular being something that inquisitive children (and impecunious adults) might easily remove.

So in summary – there are some interesting tensions at play in the depositional practices at the Rollrights; the balance between planned and ad hoc deposition, and also the distinction between the retrievability and non-removal of items. The evidence of burning in the centre of the circle and an attempt to either hide it or reinstate the damaged area also raises issues about authorised and un-authorised ritual activity on the site (as a Scheduled Monument the burning of fires at the site is forbidden). It would be interested to carry out a more formal longitudinal study of the practices at the site- I’d like to have a better sense of the distinction between more formalised ritualised practices, such as those carried out by organised pagan groups and more informal and personal individual acts of deposition.

For some more reading about contemporary votive depositional practices have a look at

Foley, R. 2010. Performing health in place: The holy well as a therapeutic assemblage Health & Place 17(2):470-9

























41 comments:

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Unknown said...

Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

Joel dwin said...

I want to share a testimony of how Dr BABA herbal mixture product saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I cant make love to my wife and my penis was just too small, a full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex, i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.BABA herbal product have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 8 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. You can contact him via drbabaspellalter@gmail.com call or whatsapp him +2348139284741

How doctor olu help me to increase my penis size said...

Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on obey m breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help

Joel dwin said...

I want to share a testimony of how Dr BABA herbal mixture product saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I cant make love to my wife and my penis was just too small, a full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex, i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.BABA herbal product have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 8 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. You can contact him via drbabaspellalter@gmail.com call or whatsapp him +2348139284741

Unknown said...

Hello everyone. I was heartbroken because i had very small penis, not nice to satisfy a woman, i had so many relationship called off because of my situation, i have used so many product which i found online but none could offer me the help i searched for Which was very painful and then i saw some few comments about this herbal specialist called Dr UDI and decided to email him on so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills and cream for Penis Enlargement Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the
enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 10 inches longer and am so happy contact Dr UDI via (drudiherbalhome@gmail.com) him this number +2348051243538

How doctor olu help me to increase my penis size said...

Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on obey m breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help

Unknown said...

Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

Morgan Reed said...

I want to share a testimony of how Dr UDI herbal mixture cream saved me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing ,and i was also having weak erection problem i had so many relationship called off because of my situation, i have used so many product which i found online but none could offer me the help i searched for Which was very painful and then i saw some few testimonies about this herbal specialist called Dr UDI and decided to email him on so I gave his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me and we discussed, he gave me some comforting words and encouraged me also ans then gave me his herbal pills and cream for Penis Enlargement Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 10 inches longer and am so happy contact Dr UDI via (drudiherbalhome@gmail.com) Via whatapp on this number +2348051243538

Joyce Benson said...

hello I?m from USA , I have been suffering from HERPES virus for the past 3 years and i had constant pain especially in my knees, During the first year I had faith in God that i will be healed someday, but this disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came in search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of so many people who has been healed from Hepatitis B, HIV/AID, Diabetes,HSV, ALS HPV and Cancer by this Man called Dr, Akioya and he also gave the email address of this man and advice we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Akioya telling him about my HERPES Virus he told me not to worry that i will be cured from this deadly disease i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Doctor assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my medical doctor to confirmed if i have be finally cured behold it was true,and now i?m cure totally with Dr.Akioya, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr,Akioya on this email; drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or add him up on what-app +2348105257464http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

Unknown said...

Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

john danilla said...

I am John Danilla from UK( northern ireland), i want to share a
testimony on how a powerful spell caster cured my HIV disease, i was
diagnosed of this disease, in the year 2009, last week i saw a testimony on
Dr.Akioya on how he cured an HIV patient, so i contacted him through phone
and he asked me to email him, which idid, so he told me that all my
problems is over and then he decided to do an healing spell spell for me so
after he finished it, he told me to wait for just 24 hours and then i
should go for a test, so i really did as he had said, so my greatest
surprised when i went to the hospital to go for an HIV test, the Medical
doctor diagnosed that, i am now HIV negetative at first i was amazed and
now i have come to realise that this spell caster Dr. Akioya is a very
powerful one and a real spell caster. So viewers of this should please join
me in my celebration for i am the happiest man on earth today and if you
want to contact him, you can do this via his email
(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or call him or whatsapp him
+2348105257464. or you can visit is website;
http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

OMAIR said...

A POWERFUL SPELL CASTER TO BRING SOLUTIONS TO YOU 2019
GREETINGS TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC.
am DR oamir the india spells caster..
If you are out there passing through any of this
problems listed below the good news is that the solution to your problems is here and also perfect.
(1) Do you want your ex back?
(2) Do you always have bad dreams?
(3) You want to be promoted in your office?
(4) You want women/men to run after you?
(5) Do you want a child?
(6) You want to be rich?
(7) Do you want to tie your husband/wife to be
yours forever?
(8) Do you need financial assistance?
(9) Have you been scammed and you want to
recover your lost money?
(10)Healing of cancer, Hiv/Aids, Herpes and all kinds of sickness
(11)You want to stop marriage problems and Divorced
(12) Child Bearing
(13) Breaking Of Generation Course
(14) Getting Of Job
(15) Spiritual protection
(16) Herbal Care
(17) Divorce Spell
(18) Marriage spell
(19) Breakup spell
(20) money spell
(21) love spell
(22) get pregnant
(23) Business protection
(24) Spell for family problems
(25) Court Case Problems
If you need or want any information on love or
money spells you can get that problem solved
today at HIDIN Temple. CONTACT VIA: EMAIL: solution.india.spellcaster@gmail.com, OR WHATSAPP +917303615724

OMAIR said...

HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF REAL AND EFFECTIVE SPELL FROM DR OMAIR
My name is Rosemarie Williams, I never thought I will smile again, My husband left me with two kids for one year, All effort to bring him back failed I thought I'm not going to see him again not until I met a lady called Jesse who told me about a spell caster called Dr. OMAIR , She gave me his email address and mobile number and I contacted him and he assured me that within 48hours my husband will come back to me, In less than 48hours my husband came back started begging for forgiveness saying it is the devils work, so I'm still surprise till now about this miracle,i couldn't conceive but as soon as the spell was cast,i became pregnant and gave birth to my third child,if you need any assistance from him you can CONTACT VIA: EMAIL: solution.india.spellcaster@gmail.com, OR WHATSAPP +917303615724

OMAIR said...

THE ONLY EXTRAORDINARY SPELL CASTER IS WHAT YOU NEED TO WIN A LOTTERY
Hi Guys….I just want to say a big thanks to (DR OMAIR) for what he has done for me and my family by helping me to win lottery. I won Four hundred and twenty thousand Dollars. (($420,000.00)). His lottery spell is the best and so amazing. My life is now balance and i am Now Very Rich As i have always wanted and i am out of doubt. Are you looking for a real and genuine spell caster to help you win big in any kind of lottery you play? you can contact DR OMAIR , today all your plan to ever win Big in Lottery will Come True and work out well for you. His spell very real and genuine i can not still believe it And His spell also work very fast. Thank you so much Dr OMAIR for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me. I got my bills paid and my debt cleared and am still mega rich. If you need a real And Genuine spell caster to help you Win lottery, kindly contact him for fast and urgent Help CONTACT VIA: EMAIL: solution.india.spellcaster@gmail.com, OR WHATSAPP +917303615724

OMAIR said...

Dr. OMAIR has really made me so much believe in him by getting me cured with his herbal treatment. i really appreciate you Dr.OMAIR for bringing back happiness to my life again. thanks you so much,friends join me to thank him for what he has actually done for me i pray to you all for a good life and good health, and most especially to you Dr. OMAIR THANKS.
I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few months ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the cure of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr OMAIR and she drop the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr.OMAIR telling him about my (HERPES Virus) well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me. I am now here to testify that i am not longer a herpes patient, I have experience a total transformation in my life,for all herpes patients get your herbal medicine to cure your sickness. And there has being rapid improvement in my health, I no longer feel pains and I wake up each morning feeling revived. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all,you can CONTACT VIA: EMAIL: solution.india.spellcaster@gmail.com, OR WHATSAPP +917303615724
CANCER
EPILEPSY.
GENPILENCIN.
HIV AIDS.
COPD
DIABETICS
STROKE.
EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST
H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.
HUMAN PAPAILOMA VIRUS.
HERPES.
SYPHILIS.
HEPATITIS A B and C.
CONTACT VIA: EMAIL: solution.india.spellcaster@gmail.com, OR WHATSAPP +917303615724

Allen Elina said...

I am sharing this testimony to partners suffering in their relationships because there is an enduring solution.
My husband left me and our 3 kids for another woman after 8 years. I tried to be strong just for my kids but I could not control the pains that torment my heart because it was too painful to bear. I was hurt and confused didnt know what to do I needed a help, so i did a research on the internet and came across a site where I saw that Dr UDI a spellcaster not just a spellcaster but a powerful one indeed and he can help get lovers back. I contacted him and he did a special prayer and spells for me and told me to go cool off wish i eventally did. To my greatest surprises, few days later, my husband came back home. what i taught was imposible became possible because of DR UDI. That was how we Became reunited again and renewed our vows and believe me there lot of love, joy and peace in the family.
You can as well contact DR UDI, a powerful spell-caster for solutions on his contact Ultimatespellhome@gmail.com or via Whats App: +2348051243538

Olivia Jayden said...

I want to thank Dr Osasu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until till the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Osasu and told him every think and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him,i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within that 3 days, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with his email address [drosasu25@gmail.com or directly on whasapp +2347064365391

Olivia Jayden said...

I want to thank Dr Osasu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until till the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Osasu and told him every think and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him,i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within that 3 days, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with his email address [drosasu25@gmail.com or directly on whasapp +2347064365391

HERBAL WAYS TO ENLARGE PENIS said...

Herbal treatment is 100% guarantee for PENIS ENLARGEMENT , the reason why most people are finding it difficult to get a bigger and Erect Penis is because they believe on medical report, drugs and medical treatment, which is not helpful to Enlarge or Erect Penis . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge Penis and help you Last Longer on Bed. I am a living Testimony to this process Dr Aziba helped me with his Herbal Product which started to manifest within 7 days of use so i am writing his Contact for anyone who needs his Help in Enlarging of Penis and better Erection and also Weight Loss, Contact Dr via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com and also via WhatsApp : +2348100368288







Herbal treatment is 100% guarantee for PENIS ENLARGEMENT , the reason why most people are finding it difficult to get a bigger and Erect Penis is because they believe on medical report, drugs and medical treatment, which is not helpful to Enlarge or Erect Penis . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge Penis and help you Last Longer on Bed. I am a living Testimony to this process Dr Aziba helped me with his Herbal Product which started to manifest within 7 days of use so i am writing his Contact for anyone who needs his Help in Enlarging of Penis and better Erection and also Weight Loss, Contact Dr via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com and also via WhatsApp : +2348100368288

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